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Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

THE IRON" INDUSTRY.
TABLE XXII-B. Output of Steel in the United States from 1867 to 1904.
Year.	Bessemer Ingot*.	Open Hearth Ingots.	All Kinds of Steel.	Bessemer Bails.	Bessemer Steel ; per cent, of total Steel.
1867 ........	2,679		19,643	2,277	14
1868.. ......	7589		26 786	6,451	28
1869 .......	10,714	893	31,250	8,616	34
1870 .......	37,500	1839	68750	30,357	53
1871 ........	40,179	1,785	73,214	34,152	55
1872 ........	107,239	2.679	142,954	83,991	75
1873 ........	152,368	8,125	198,796	115,192	77
1874 ........	171,369	6,250	215,727	129,414	79
1875 ........	335,283	8,080	389,799	259,699	86
1876........	469,639	19187	533,191	368,269	88
1877 ........	500,524	22,349	569,618	385865	88
1878 ........	653,773	32,255	731,977	491,427	89
1879 ........	829,439	50,259	935,273	610,682	89
1880 ......	1 074,262	100851	1,247,335	852,196	86
1881 ........	1,374,247	131,202	1,588,314	1,187,770	87
1882.. ......	1,514,687	14,341	1,736,692	1,284,067	87
1883 ........	1,477 345	119,356	1,673,535	1,148.709	88
1884 .....	1,375,531	117,515	1,550,879	996,983	89
1885 ........	1,519,430	133,376	1,711,920	959,471	89
1886 ......	2,269,190	218 973	2,562,503	1,574,703	89
1887 ......	2,936 033	322 069	3,339,071	2,101,904	88
1888. .......	2,511 161	314,318	2,899,440	1.386,277	87
1889 ........	2,930,204	874 543	3,385,732	1,510,057	87
1890 .......	3,688,871	513,232	4,277,071	1,867,837	87
1891 .......	3 247 417	579,753	8,904.240	1.293,053	83
1892 .......	4 168,435	669,889	4,927,581	1,537,588	85
1893 .......	3.215 686	737,890	4,019,995	1,129,400	80
1894 ......	3 571 313	784 936	4,412,032	1 016,013	81
1895 .......	4,909 128	1,137,182	6.114,834	1.299,628	80
1896 .......	3,919.906	1,298,700	5,281,689	1,116,958	74
1897 ...... .	6 475,315	1,608 671	7,156 957	1 644,520	77
1898 .......	6,609,017	2,230,292	8,932,857	1,976,702	74
1899 .......	7,586 354	2,947 316	10,639,857	2,270,585	71
1900 .....	6,684,770 8 713 302	3,398,135 4 656 309	10,188,329 13,473,595	2,383,654 2.870,816	66 65
1902	9 138 368	5 687' 729	14 947 '50	2 935 392	61
1903 .......	8,592 829	5 8'9 911	14 534- 978	2 '946 '75 6	59
1904 .......	7 859,140	5' 908 166	13 859 887	2 137 957	57
					
in open-hearth steel, a start having been made at the New Jersey Steel and Iron Co. in 1868,, but it was not until 1880 that the output reached 100,000 tons per year. Up to this time the steel industry was largely dependent upon Spanish ores/ and the works near the eastern seaboard were in the most advantageous position; but from 1880 to 1890 the development of the Lake Superior deposits and the establishment of cheap transportation made the United States practically independent of foreign ore, while the exploitation of the Mesabi range in 1893 transferred the command of the steel market to a point west of the Allegheny Mountains.
.From 1883 to 1837 the production of Bessemer steel was 1,900,-000 tons per year, being 89 per cent, of the total, the open-hearth